Near-miss reporting is giving out information concerning a near miss the moment it happens by the employees. Some organizations have formal ways of near-miss reporting by using forms, emails etc. But the main thing is that a near miss was not left unreported.
Most times, workers are not ready to report a near miss because of blame or because they are afraid of being punished when they do so. Near-miss reporting should be natural for all workers to do. The management has to reassure the workers of their support and not be blamed in such an exercise and even encourage them.